Svalbard
https://en.wikipedia.org
Svalbard  Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈsʋɑ(ː)lbɑːɾ]; prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. Situated north of mainland Europe, it is about midway between continental Norway and the North Pole. The islands of the group range from 74° to 81° north latitude, and from 10° to 35° east longitude. The largest island is Spitsbergen, followed by Nordaustlandet and Edgeøya. Administratively, the archipelago is not part of any Norwegian county, but forms an unincorporated area administered by a governor appointed by the Norwegian government. Since 2002, Svalbard's main settlement, Longyearbyen, has had an elected local government, somewhat similar to mainland municipalities. Other settlements include the Russian mining community of Barentsburg, the research station of Ny-Ålesund, and the mining outpost of Sveagruva. Ny-Ålesund is the northernmost settlement in the world with a permanent civilian population. Other settlements are farther north, but are populated only by rotating groups of researchers.

The islands were first taken into use as a whaling base in the 17th and 18th centuries, after which they were abandoned. Coal mining started at the beginning of the 20th century, and several permanent communities were established. The Svalbard Treaty of 1920 recognizes Norwegian sovereignty, and the 1925 Svalbard Act made Svalbard a full part of the Kingdom of Norway. They also established Svalbard as a free economic zone and a demilitarized zone. The Norwegian Store Norske and the Russian Arktikugol remain the only mining companies in place. Research and tourism have become important supplementary industries, with the University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS) and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault playing critical roles. No roads connect the settlements; instead snowmobiles, aircraft and boats serve inter-community transport. Svalbard Airport, Longyear serves as the main gateway.

The archipelago features an Arctic climate, although with significantly higher temperatures than other areas at the same latitude. The flora take advantage of the long period of midnight sun to compensate for the polar night. Svalbard is a breeding ground for many seabirds, and also features polar bears, reindeer, the Arctic fox, and certain marine mammals. Seven national parks and twenty-three nature reserves cover two-thirds of the archipelago, protecting the largely untouched, yet fragile, natural environment. Approximately 60% of the archipelago is covered with glaciers, and the islands feature many mountains and fjords.

Svalbard and Jan Mayen are collectively assigned the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code "SJ". Both areas are administered by Norway, though they are separated by a distance of over 950 kilometres (510 nautical miles) and have very different administrative structures.
The Svalbard Treaty of 1920[4] defines Svalbard as all islands, islets and skerries from 74° to 81° north latitude, and from 10° to 35° east longitude.[5][6] The land area is 61,022 km2 (23,561 sq mi), and dominated by the island of Spitsbergen, which constitutes more than half the archipelago, followed by Nordaustlandet and Edgeøya.[7] All settlements are located on Spitsbergen, except the meteorological outposts on Bjørnøya and Hopen.[4] The Norwegian state took possession of all unclaimed land, or 95.2% of the archipelago, at the time the Svalbard Treaty entered into force; Store Norske owns 4%, Arktikugol owns 0.4%, while other private owners hold 0.4%.[8]

Since Svalbard is located north of the Arctic Circle it experiences midnight sun in summer and polar night in winter. At 74° north, the midnight sun lasts 99 days and polar night 84 days, while the respective figures at 81° are 141 and 128 days.[9] In Longyearbyen, midnight sun lasts from 20 April until 23 August, and polar night lasts from 26 October to 15 February.[5] In winter, the combination of full moon and reflective snow can give additional light.[9]

Glacial ice covers 36,502 km2 (14,094 sq mi) or 60% of Svalbard; 30% is barren rock while 10% is vegetated.[10] The largest glacier is Austfonna (8,412 km2 or 3,248 sq mi) on Nordaustlandet, followed by Olav V Land and Vestfonna. During summer, it is possible to ski from Sørkapp in the south to the north of Spitsbergen, with only a short distance not being covered by snow or glacier. Kvitøya is 99.3% covered by glacier.[11]

The landforms of Svalbard were created through repeated ice ages, when glaciers cut the former plateau into fjords, valleys and mountains.[12] The tallest peak is Newtontoppen (1,717 m or 5,633 ft), followed by Perriertoppen (1,712 m or 5,617 ft), Ceresfjellet (1,675 m or 5,495 ft), Chadwickryggen (1,640 m or 5,380 ft) and Galileotoppen (1,637 m or 5,371 ft). The longest fjord is Wijdefjorden (108 km or 67 mi), followed by Isfjorden (107 km or 66 mi), Van Mijenfjorden (83 km or 52 mi), Woodfjorden (64 km or 40 mi) and Wahlenbergfjorden (46 km or 29 mi).[13] Svalbard is part of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province,[14] and experienced Norway's strongest earthquake on 6 March 2009, which hit a magnitude of 6.5
In addition to humans, three primarily terrestrial mammalian species inhabit the archipelago: the Arctic fox, the Svalbard reindeer, and accidentally introduced southern voles, which are found only in Grumant.[108] Attempts to introduce the Arctic hare and the muskox have both failed.[109] There are fifteen to twenty types of marine mammals, including whales, dolphins, seals, walruses, and polar bears.[108]

Polar bears are the iconic symbol of Svalbard, and one of the main tourist attractions.[110] The animals are protected and people moving outside the settlements are required to have appropriate scare devices to ward off attacks. They are also advised to carry a firearm for use as a last resort.[111][112] A British schoolboy was killed by a polar bear in 2011.[113] Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land share a common population of 3,000 polar bears, with Kong Karls Land being the most important breeding ground.


Female polar bear with cub
The Svalbard reindeer (R. tarandus platyrhynchus) is a distinct sub-species; although it was previously almost extinct, it can be legally hunted (as can Arctic fox).[108] There are limited numbers of domesticated animals in the Russian settlements.[114]


Tundra at Bellsund
About thirty species of bird are found on Svalbard, most of which are migratory. The Barents Sea is among the areas in the world with most seabirds, with about 20 million individuals during late summer. The most common are little auk, northern fulmar, thick-billed murre and black-legged kittiwake. Sixteen species are on the IUCN Red List. Particularly Bjørnøya, Storfjorden, Nordvest-Spitsbergen and Hopen are important breeding ground for seabirds. The Arctic tern has the furthest migration, all the way to Antarctica.[108] Only two songbirds migrate to Svalbard to breed: the snow bunting and the wheatear. Rock ptarmigan is the only bird to overwinter.[115] Remains of Predator X from the Jurassic period have been found; it is the largest dinosaur-era marine reptile ever found-a pliosaur estimated to have been almost 15 m (49 ft) long.[116]


Western coast of Bünsow Land. Located at Isfjorden in Spitsbergen.
Svalbard has permafrost and tundra, with both low, middle and high Arctic vegetation. 165 species of plants have been found on the archipelago.[108] Only those areas which defrost in the summer have vegetations, which accounts for about 10% of the archipelago.[117] Vegetation is most abundant in Nordenskiöld Land, around Isfjorden and where affected by guano.[118] While there is little precipitation, giving the archipelago a steppe climate, plants still have good access to water because the cold climate reduces evaporation.[106][108] The growing season is very short, and may last only a few weeks.[119]

There are seven national parks in Svalbard: Forlandet, Indre Wijdefjorden, Nordenskiöld Land, Nordre Isfjorden Land, Nordvest-Spitsbergen, Sassen-Bünsow Land and Sør-Spitsbergen.[120] The archipelago has fifteen bird sanctuaries, one geotopic protected area and six nature reserves-with Nordaust-Svalbard and Søraust-Svalbard both being larger than any of the national parks. Most of the nature reserves and three of the national parks were created in 1973, with the remaining areas gaining protection in the 2000s.[121] All human traces dating from before 1946 are automatically protected.[111] The protected areas make up 65% of the archipelago.[88] Svalbard is on Norway's tentative list for nomination as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[122]


Total solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 from Longyearbyen, Norway
The total solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 included only Svalbard and the Faroe Islands in the band of totality. Many scientists and tourists observed it
In the sky over Svalbard. Landscape In the sky over Svalbard. Landscape The village of Barentsburg. The Svalbard Archipelago. Norway. Church in the village of Barentsburg. Svalbard, Norway _MG_2699  06 16-Панорама
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Bay Isfjord, Cape Heerodden. Norway. Panorama _MG_4277  06 16 Nordenskjold glacier. Svalbard. Norway. Panorama _MG_4686  06 16-Панорама _MG_4803  06 16
_MG_4865  06 16 Saxifrage on the Bay of Is-fjords. Svalbard. Norway. _MG_4926  06 16 _MG_4932  06 16 _MG_4950  06 16
_MG_4981  06 16 Pyramid Village. Bay Isfjord, Cape Heerodden. Norway. Panorama Nordenskiöld glacier. Spitsbergen. Panorama Nordenskiöld glacier. Spitsbergen. Panorama Sunset over Nordenskjold glacier. Svalbard. Norway. Panorama
_MG_5339  06 16 _MG_5375  07 16-Панорама _MG_5413  07 16-Edit Panorama _MG_5428  07 16-Edit Panorama NordenskiГ¶ld glacier. Spitsbergen. Panorama
_MG_5609  07 16 Nordenskiöld glacier. Spitsbergen and Pyramid village. Panorama Pyramiden (meaning "the pyramid" in most Scandinavian languages; called  Piramida, in Russian) is a Russian settlement and coal-mining community on the archipelago of Svalbard, Norway. Founded by Sweden[citation needed] in 1910 and sold to the Soviet Union in 1927, Pyramiden was closed in 1998 and has since remained largely abandoned with most of its infrastructure and buildings still in place. Since 2007 there have been efforts to make it a tourist attraction.         https://en.wikipedia.org/ _MG_5695  07 16 _MG_5715  07 16
_MG_5721  07 16 Nordenskiöld glacier. Spitsbergen. Panorama Nordenskiöld glacier. Spitsbergen and Pyramid village. Panorama Nordenskiöld glacier. Spitsbergen. Panorama _MG_5936  07 16
_MG_5945  07 16-Панорама _MG_6114  07 16 Bay Isfjord, Cape Heerodden. Norway. Panorama _MG_6263  07 16 Bay Isfjord, Cape Heerodden. Norway. Panorama
_MG_6416  07 16 The bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), also called the square flipper seal, is a medium-sized pinniped that is found in and near to the Arctic Ocean. It gets its generic name from two Greek words (eri and gnathos) that refer to its heavy jaw. The other part of its Linnaean name means bearded and refers to its most characteristic feature, the conspicuous and very abundant whiskers. When dry, these whiskers curl very elegantly, giving the bearded seal a "raffish" look.[citation needed]

Fossils first described in 2002 indicated that, during the Pleistocene epoch, bearded seals ranged as far south as South Carolina.
Distinguishing features of this earless seal include square fore flippers and thick bristles on its muzzle. Adults are greyish-brown in colour, darker on the back; rarely with a few faint spots on the back or dark spots on the sides. Occasionally the face and neck are reddish-brown. Bearded seal pups are born with a greyish-brown natal fur with scattered patches of white on the back and head. The bearded seal is unique in the subfamily Phocinae in having two pairs of teats, a feature it shares with monk seals.

Bearded seals reach about 2.1 to 2.7 m (6 ft 11 in to 8 ft 10 in) in nose-to-tail length and from 200 to 430 kg (441 to 948 lb) in weight.[4] The female seal is larger than the male.

Bearded seals, along with ringed seals, are a major food source for polar bears. They are also an important food source for the Inuit of the Arctic coast. The Inuit language name for the seal is ugjuk or oogrook or oogruk. The Inuit preferred the ringed seal for food and light; the meat would be eaten and the blubber burnt in the kudlik (stone lamp). The skin of the bearded seal is tougher than regular seal and was used to make shoes, whips, dog sled harnesses, to cover a wooden frame boat, the Umiak and in constructing summer tents known as tupiq.

The body fat content of a bearded seal is 30–40%.           https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bearded_seal _MG_6507  07 16 _MG_6624  07 16-Панорама Glacier Venernbreen. Spitsbergen. Panorama
_MG_6844  07 16 Bay Isfjord, Cape Heerodden. Norway. Panorama Canon EOS 5D Mark II058  06 16 Monument to the dead sailors ships IsbjГёrn and Selis. Svalbard, Norway Bay Beach Isfjord. Svalbard. Norway. Panorama
f_47  11 16 In the sky over Svalbard. Landscape IMG_3247  06 16 IMG_3255  06 16 Saxifrage on the Bay of Is-fjords. Svalbard. Norway.
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Saxifrage on the Bay of Is-fjords. Svalbard. Norway. IMG_5080  06 16 Nordenskiöld glacier. Spitsbergen. Panorama